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How Vulcanized shoes are made: 

In the vulcanized shoe making process the rubber shoe outsole parts are assembled onto the lasted upper before the rubber is completely cured.  With the sole attached, the entire shoe must be heated in an vulcanizing oven.  The shoe must be heated to around 170 C  – that is over 300 F!  The heat required to vulcanize the rubber sole will melt nylon and polyester fabrics,  certain types of foam like EVA and PE are also damaged by the heat.  shoes are made by the vulcanized process thus the uppers must be made of heat-resistant materials like suede leather and cotton canvas with metal hardware. This can limit the material choices for footwear designer

The vulcanized shoemaking process must be made in a specific factory equipped with lots of special machines.  The shoemaking equipment required is very different from the equipment needed to make cold cement shoes.  A shoe factory will usually specialize in one process or the other, you will rarely find both vulcanized and cold cement processes inside the same factory.

The upper stitching and construction of a vulcanized shoe is nearly the same as a cold cement shoe.  The inside reinforcements for the toe and heel counters are made of thin rubber sheets instead of plastic.  Again, due to the high temperature required for the vulcanized rubber, any kind of plastic or PVC logos or trim treatments must be avoided when designing a vulcanized shoe.  The lining of shoes are made from light weight cotton canvas.

While the uppers being stitched, the rubber components for the vulcanized sole unit must be prepared. The rubber components for vulcanized shoes have a shelf life of only a few days. If the rubber parts are made and set aside the rubber will begin to oxidize, partially cure, and will not properly cure when the shoes are finally getting vulcanized.

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